From The Straits Times    |

By the Women’s Wellness Centre, KK Women’s and Children’s Hospital (KKH), a member of the SingHealth group

Keep a PMS diary
Take note of changes such as irritability, moodiness, fluid retention, breast tenderness and food cravings, and include the details of your menstrual cycle – e.g. the first and last days of your menstrual period – and any ovulation symptoms. Keep this diary for at least three menstrual cycles to rule out other possible causes.

Rest up and relax with enjoyable activities
Try to limit stressful situations as far as possible. Manage your stress with activities such as meditation, tai chi or simple stretching exercises. 

Share your feelings with family or close friends 
You may soon realise you’re not the only one ‘suffering’! 

Do regular aerobic exercise
This helps to keep you fit and eases some of the minor symptoms such as lethargy and insomnia. Aim to exercise at least three times a week, and increase the frequency during the premenstrual period.

Make dietary changes
For instance, try eating smaller meals more frequently, as well as cutting down on caffeine, high fat, sugary and salty foods can help to balance your blood sugar levels and reduce symptoms such as mood swings, fluid retention and bloating.

Stay hydrated 
Drink more water and fruit or vegetable juices to help reduce symptoms such as bloating.

Avoid alcohol and smoking
These habits can aggravate the symptoms of PMS such as breast tenderness, food cravings, mood swings and depression.

Consider nutritional supplements
For instance, calcium (a dose of 1200 mg/day can reduce PMS symptoms by half) and vitamin B6 (50–100 mg/day; toxic at higher doses) have been shown to be beneficial for easing PMS symptoms.

Take herbal remedies
Chasteberry (vitex agnus castus; aka agnus castus fruit extract) has been reported as being helpful for easing premenstrual symptoms such as irritability, anger, headaches and breast fullness. Herbs commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) to ease PMS symptoms and to tonify the uterus include dang gui (angelica sinensis; aka Chinese angelica), bupleurum root (chai hu; radix bupleuri), poria (fu ling; sclerotium poriae cocos), tangerine peel (chen pi; pericarpium citri reticulatae), licorice root (gan cao; radix glycyrrhizae), white peony root (bai shao; radix paeoniae), mint leaf (bo he; herba menthae) and gingko biloba (bai guo).

Treatments for severe PMS
Medical treatments and psychotherapy are used when the symptoms are more severe. These include:
– Cognitive behavioural therapy which can help with problems such as anxiety and depression
– Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for aches and pains
– Oral contraceptive pills to stop ovulation and stabilise hormone levels, which can help to combat mood swings
– Antidepressants such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) may be the most effective treatment for PMDD and severe PMS for the relief of fatigue, depressed moods and sleep problems
– Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue therapy (GnRH-a) is used when all else fails. These synthetic hormones create a temporary menopause and stop your periods by blocking the production of oestrogen and progesterone. Significant side effects include osteoporosis (thinning of bone)

Reproduced with permission from SingHealth’s Health Xchange, Singapore’s first interactive health and lifestyle resource portal. For more information, visit

PMS: Link Between Oestrogen and Mood
How Much Exercise is Enough?